2023-09-12  阅读(111)
原文作者:一直不懂 原文地址: https://blog.csdn.net/shenchaohao12321/article/details/86762996

在Spring MVC中处理HTTP请求时如果抛出异常会使用DispatcherServlet#processHandlerException()处理,这个方法内部使用Spring MVC默认的注册的HandlerExceptionResolver进行处理。

    @Nullable
    protected ModelAndView processHandlerException(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response,
          @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {
       // Success and error responses may use different content types
       request.removeAttribute(HandlerMapping.PRODUCIBLE_MEDIA_TYPES_ATTRIBUTE);
       // Check registered HandlerExceptionResolvers...
       ModelAndView exMv = null;
       if (this.handlerExceptionResolvers != null) {
          for (HandlerExceptionResolver resolver : this.handlerExceptionResolvers) {
             exMv = resolver.resolveException(request, response, handler, ex);
             if (exMv != null) {
                break;
             }
          }
       }
       if (exMv != null) {
          if (exMv.isEmpty()) {
             request.setAttribute(EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE, ex);
             return null;
          }
          // We might still need view name translation for a plain error model...
          if (!exMv.hasView()) {
             String defaultViewName = getDefaultViewName(request);
             if (defaultViewName != null) {
                exMv.setViewName(defaultViewName);
             }
          }
          if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
             logger.trace("Using resolved error view: " + exMv, ex);
          }
          if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
             logger.debug("Using resolved error view: " + exMv);
          }
          WebUtils.exposeErrorRequestAttributes(request, ex, getServletName());
          return exMv;
       }
       throw ex;
    }

Spring MVC默认注册了三个HandlerExceptionResolver:

  1. ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver
  2. ResponseStatusExceptionResolver
  3. DefaultHandlerExceptionResolver
    public interface HandlerExceptionResolver {
       //尝试解决在处理程序执行期间抛出的给定异常,返回表示特定错误页面的ModelAndView(如果适用)。
       //返回的ModelAndView可能是empty(ModelAndView.isEmpty()),表示异常已成功解析,但不应呈现任何视图,例如通过设置状态代码。
       @Nullable
       ModelAndView resolveException(
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex);
    }

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1、AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver

HandlerExceptionResolver实现的抽象基类。支持设置映射处理程序setMappedHandlers()和setMappedHandlerClasses(),解析器应该应用于并实现Ordered接口。

    public abstract class AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver implements HandlerExceptionResolver, Ordered {
       private static final String HEADER_CACHE_CONTROL = "Cache-Control";
       /** Logger available to subclasses. */
       protected final Log logger = LogFactory.getLog(getClass());
       private int order = Ordered.LOWEST_PRECEDENCE;
       @Nullable
       private Set<?> mappedHandlers;
       @Nullable
       private Class<?>[] mappedHandlerClasses;
       @Nullable
       private Log warnLogger;
       private boolean preventResponseCaching = false;
       public void setOrder(int order) {
          this.order = order;
       }
       @Override
       public int getOrder() {
          return this.order;
       }
    
       //指定此异常解析程序应应用于的处理程序集合。异常映射和默认错误视图仅适用于指定的处理程序。
       //如果未设置处理程序或处理程序类,则异常映射和默认错误视图将应用于所有处理程序。 
       //这意味着指定的默认错误视图将用作所有异常的回退; 在这种情况下,链中的任何其他HandlerExceptionResolvers都将被忽略。
       public void setMappedHandlers(Set<?> mappedHandlers) {
          this.mappedHandlers = mappedHandlers;
       }
    
       //指定此异常解析程序应应用于的类集合。
       //异常映射和缺省错误视图仅适用于指定类型的处理程序; 指定的类型也可以是处理程序的接口或超类。
       //如果未设置处理程序或处理程序类,则异常映射和默认错误视图将应用于所有处理程序。 
       //这意味着指定的默认错误视图将用作所有异常的回退; 在这种情况下,链中的任何其他HandlerExceptionResolvers都将被忽略。
       public void setMappedHandlerClasses(Class<?>... mappedHandlerClasses) {
          this.mappedHandlerClasses = mappedHandlerClasses;
       }
       public void setWarnLogCategory(String loggerName) {
          this.warnLogger = LogFactory.getLog(loggerName);
       }
    
       //指定是否阻止此异常解析程序解析的任何视图的HTTP响应缓存。
       //默认值为false。 将其切换为true,以便自动生成抑制响应缓存的HTTP响应标头。
       public void setPreventResponseCaching(boolean preventResponseCaching) {
          this.preventResponseCaching = preventResponseCaching;
       }
    
       //检查是否应该应用此解析程序(即,所提供的处理程序是否与任何已配置的setMappedHandlers处理程序或setMappedHandlerClasses处理程序类匹配),
       //然后委托给doResolveException()模板方法。
       @Override
       @Nullable
       public ModelAndView resolveException(
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex) {
          if (shouldApplyTo(request, handler)) {
             prepareResponse(ex, response);
             ModelAndView result = doResolveException(request, response, handler, ex);
             if (result != null) {
                // Print warn message when warn logger is not enabled...
                if (logger.isDebugEnabled() && (this.warnLogger == null || !this.warnLogger.isWarnEnabled())) {
                   logger.debug("Resolved [" + ex + "]" + (result.isEmpty() ? "" : " to " + result));
                }
                // warnLogger with full stack trace (requires explicit config)
                logException(ex, request);
             }
             return result;
          }
          else {
             return null;
          }
       }
    
       //检查此解析程序是否应该应用于给定的处理程序。
       //默认实现检查配置的#setMappedHandlers处理程序和setMappedHandlerClasses处理程序类,如果有的话
       protected boolean shouldApplyTo(HttpServletRequest request, @Nullable Object handler) {
          if (handler != null) {
             if (this.mappedHandlers != null && this.mappedHandlers.contains(handler)) {
                return true;
             }
             if (this.mappedHandlerClasses != null) {
                for (Class<?> handlerClass : this.mappedHandlerClasses) {
                   if (handlerClass.isInstance(handler)) {
                      return true;
                   }
                }
             }
          }
          // Else only apply if there are no explicit handler mappings.
          return (this.mappedHandlers == null && this.mappedHandlerClasses == null);
       }
       protected void logException(Exception ex, HttpServletRequest request) {
          if (this.warnLogger != null && this.warnLogger.isWarnEnabled()) {
             this.warnLogger.warn(buildLogMessage(ex, request));
          }
       }
       protected String buildLogMessage(Exception ex, HttpServletRequest request) {
          return "Resolved [" + ex + "]";
       }
    
       //为特殊情况准备响应。
       //如果setPreventResponseCaching preventResponseCaching属性已设置为”true“,则默认实现会阻止响应被缓存
       protected void prepareResponse(Exception ex, HttpServletResponse response) {
          if (this.preventResponseCaching) {
             preventCaching(response);
          }
       }
    
       //通过设置相应的HTTP Cache-Control:no-store标头来阻止缓存响应。
       protected void preventCaching(HttpServletResponse response) {
          response.addHeader(HEADER_CACHE_CONTROL, "no-store");
       }
    
       //实际上解决了在处理程序执行期间抛出的给定异常,如果合适,返回表示特定错误页面的ModelAndView。
       //可以在子类中重写,以便应用特定的异常检查。
       //请注意,在检查此解析是否适用(“mappedHandlers”等)之后将调用此模板方法,因此实现可能只是继续其实际的异常处理。
       @Nullable
       protected abstract ModelAndView doResolveException(
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex);
    
    }

2、AbstractHandlerMethodExceptionResolver

HandlerExceptionResolver实现的抽象基类,支持处理类型为HandlerMethod的处理程序的异常。

    public abstract class AbstractHandlerMethodExceptionResolver extends AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver {
       //检查处理程序是否为HandlerMethod,然后委托shouldApplyTo(HttpServletRequest,Object)
       //的基类实现传递HandlerMethod的bean。 否则返回false。
       @Override
       protected boolean shouldApplyTo(HttpServletRequest request, @Nullable Object handler) {
          if (handler == null) {
             return super.shouldApplyTo(request, null);
          }
          else if (handler instanceof HandlerMethod) {
             HandlerMethod handlerMethod = (HandlerMethod) handler;
             handler = handlerMethod.getBean();
             return super.shouldApplyTo(request, handler);
          }
          else {
             return false;
          }
       }
    
       @Override
       @Nullable
       protected final ModelAndView doResolveException(
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex) {
          return doResolveHandlerMethodException(request, response, (HandlerMethod) handler, ex);
       }
    
       //实际上解决了在处理程序执行期间抛出的给定异常,返回表示特定错误页面的ModelAndView(如果适用)。
       //可以在子类中重写,以便应用特定的异常检查。
       //请注意,在检查此解析是否适用(“mappedHandlers”等)之后将调用此模板方法,因此实现可能只是继续其实际的异常处理。
       @Nullable
       protected abstract ModelAndView doResolveHandlerMethodException(
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable HandlerMethod handlerMethod, Exception ex);
    }

3、ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver

是一个AbstractHandlerMethodExceptionResolver,它通过@ExceptionHandler方法解决异常。可以通过setCustomArgumentResolvers()和setCustomReturnValueHandlers()添加对自定义参数和返回值类型的支持。
或者,重新配置所有参数和返回值类型使用setArgumentResolvers()和setReturnValueHandlers(List)。

    @Override
    public void afterPropertiesSet() {
       // Do this first, it may add ResponseBodyAdvice beans
       initExceptionHandlerAdviceCache();
       if (this.argumentResolvers == null) {
          List<HandlerMethodArgumentResolver> resolvers = getDefaultArgumentResolvers();
          this.argumentResolvers = new HandlerMethodArgumentResolverComposite().addResolvers(resolvers);
       }
       if (this.returnValueHandlers == null) {
          List<HandlerMethodReturnValueHandler> handlers = getDefaultReturnValueHandlers();
          this.returnValueHandlers = new HandlerMethodReturnValueHandlerComposite().addHandlers(handlers);
       }
    }
    
    private void initExceptionHandlerAdviceCache() {
       if (getApplicationContext() == null) {
          return;
       }
       List<ControllerAdviceBean> adviceBeans = ControllerAdviceBean.findAnnotatedBeans(getApplicationContext());
       AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(adviceBeans);
       for (ControllerAdviceBean adviceBean : adviceBeans) {
          Class<?> beanType = adviceBean.getBeanType();
          if (beanType == null) {
             throw new IllegalStateException("Unresolvable type for ControllerAdviceBean: " + adviceBean);
          }
          //可以处理@ExceptionHandler value属性值异常或异常处理方法参数指定的异常
          ExceptionHandlerMethodResolver resolver = new ExceptionHandlerMethodResolver(beanType);
          if (resolver.hasExceptionMappings()) {
             this.exceptionHandlerAdviceCache.put(adviceBean, resolver);
          }
          if (ResponseBodyAdvice.class.isAssignableFrom(beanType)) {
             this.responseBodyAdvice.add(adviceBean);
          }
       }
       if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
          int handlerSize = this.exceptionHandlerAdviceCache.size();
          int adviceSize = this.responseBodyAdvice.size();
          if (handlerSize == 0 && adviceSize == 0) {
             logger.debug("ControllerAdvice beans: none");
          }
          else {
             logger.debug("ControllerAdvice beans: " +
                   handlerSize + " @ExceptionHandler, " + adviceSize + " ResponseBodyAdvice");
          }
       }
    }
    //找到@ExceptionHandler方法并调用它来处理引发的异常
    @Override
    @Nullable
    protected ModelAndView doResolveHandlerMethodException(HttpServletRequest request,
          HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable HandlerMethod handlerMethod, Exception exception) {
       ServletInvocableHandlerMethod exceptionHandlerMethod = getExceptionHandlerMethod(handlerMethod, exception);
       if (exceptionHandlerMethod == null) {
          return null;
       }
       if (this.argumentResolvers != null) {
      exceptionHandlerMethod.setHandlerMethodArgumentResolvers(this.argumentResolvers);
       }
       if (this.returnValueHandlers != null) {  exceptionHandlerMethod.setHandlerMethodReturnValueHandlers(this.returnValueHandlers);
       }
       ServletWebRequest webRequest = new ServletWebRequest(request, response);
       ModelAndViewContainer mavContainer = new ModelAndViewContainer();
       try {
          if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
             logger.debug("Using @ExceptionHandler " + exceptionHandlerMethod);
          }
          Throwable cause = exception.getCause();
          if (cause != null) {
             // Expose cause as provided argument as well
             exceptionHandlerMethod.invokeAndHandle(webRequest, mavContainer, exception, cause, handlerMethod);
          }
          else {
             // Otherwise, just the given exception as-is
             exceptionHandlerMethod.invokeAndHandle(webRequest, mavContainer, exception, handlerMethod);
          }
       }
       catch (Throwable invocationEx) {
          // Any other than the original exception is unintended here,
          // probably an accident (e.g. failed assertion or the like).
          if (invocationEx != exception && logger.isWarnEnabled()) {
             logger.warn("Failure in @ExceptionHandler " + exceptionHandlerMethod, invocationEx);
          }
          // Continue with default processing of the original exception...
          return null;
       }
    
       if (mavContainer.isRequestHandled()) {
          return new ModelAndView();
       }
       else {
          ModelMap model = mavContainer.getModel();
          HttpStatus status = mavContainer.getStatus();
          ModelAndView mav = new ModelAndView(mavContainer.getViewName(), model, status);
          mav.setViewName(mavContainer.getViewName());
          if (!mavContainer.isViewReference()) {
             mav.setView((View) mavContainer.getView());
          }
          if (model instanceof RedirectAttributes) {
             Map<String, ?> flashAttributes = ((RedirectAttributes) model).getFlashAttributes();
             RequestContextUtils.getOutputFlashMap(request).putAll(flashAttributes);
          }
          return mav;
       }
    }
    //找到给定异常的@ExceptionHandler方法。 
    //默认实现首先搜索控制器的类层次结构中的方法,如果没有找到,它将继续搜索其他@ExceptionHandler方法,
    //假设检测到一些@ControllerAdvice Spring管理的bean。
    @Nullable
    protected ServletInvocableHandlerMethod getExceptionHandlerMethod(
          @Nullable HandlerMethod handlerMethod, Exception exception) {
       Class<?> handlerType = null;
       if (handlerMethod != null) {
          //控制器类本身的本地异常处理程序方法。
          //即使在基于接口的代理的情况下,也要通过代理调用。
          handlerType = handlerMethod.getBeanType();
          ExceptionHandlerMethodResolver resolver = this.exceptionHandlerCache.get(handlerType);
          if (resolver == null) {
             resolver = new ExceptionHandlerMethodResolver(handlerType);
             this.exceptionHandlerCache.put(handlerType, resolver);
          }
          Method method = resolver.resolveMethod(exception);
          if (method != null) {
             return new ServletInvocableHandlerMethod(handlerMethod.getBean(), method);
          }
          //对于下面的建议适用性检查(涉及基础包,可分配类型和注释存在),请使用目标类而不是基于接口的代理。
          if (Proxy.isProxyClass(handlerType)) {
             handlerType = AopUtils.getTargetClass(handlerMethod.getBean());
          }
       }
       for (Map.Entry<ControllerAdviceBean, ExceptionHandlerMethodResolver> entry : this.exceptionHandlerAdviceCache.entrySet()) {
          ControllerAdviceBean advice = entry.getKey();
          if (advice.isApplicableToBeanType(handlerType)) {
             ExceptionHandlerMethodResolver resolver = entry.getValue();
             Method method = resolver.resolveMethod(exception);
             if (method != null) {
                return new ServletInvocableHandlerMethod(advice.resolveBean(), method);
             }
          }
       }
       return null;
    }

4、ResponseStatusExceptionResolver

一个HandlerExceptionResolver,它使用@ResponseStatus注释将异常映射到HTTP状态代码。

默认情况下,在{@link org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet DispatcherServlet}以及MVC Java配置和MVC命名空间中启用此异常解析程序。

从4.2开始,这个解析器也会以@ResponseStatus递归查找原因异常,从4.2.2开始,此解析器支持自定义组合注释中@ResponseStatus的属性覆盖。

从5.0开始,这个解析器也支持ResponseStatusException。

    public class ResponseStatusExceptionResolver extends AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver implements MessageSourceAware {
       @Nullable
       private MessageSource messageSource;
       @Override
       public void setMessageSource(MessageSource messageSource) {
          this.messageSource = messageSource;
       }
       @Override
       @Nullable
       protected ModelAndView doResolveException(
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex) {
          try {
             if (ex instanceof ResponseStatusException) {
                return resolveResponseStatusException((ResponseStatusException) ex, request, response, handler);
             }
             ResponseStatus status = AnnotatedElementUtils.findMergedAnnotation(ex.getClass(), ResponseStatus.class);
             if (status != null) {
                return resolveResponseStatus(status, request, response, handler, ex);
             }
             if (ex.getCause() instanceof Exception) {
                return doResolveException(request, response, handler, (Exception) ex.getCause());
             }
          }
          catch (Exception resolveEx) {
             if (logger.isWarnEnabled()) {
                logger.warn("Failure while trying to resolve exception [" + ex.getClass().getName() + "]", resolveEx);
             }
          }
          return null;
       }
    
       //处理{@link ResponseStatus @ResponseStatus}注释的模板方法。
       //默认实现使用注释中的状态代码和原因委托给applyStatusAndReason()。
       protected ModelAndView resolveResponseStatus(ResponseStatus responseStatus, HttpServletRequest request,
             HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {
          int statusCode = responseStatus.code().value();
          String reason = responseStatus.reason();
          return applyStatusAndReason(statusCode, reason, response);
       }
    
       //处理{@link ResponseStatusException}的模板方法。
       //默认实现使用状态代码和异常原因委托给applyStatusAndReason()。
       protected ModelAndView resolveResponseStatusException(ResponseStatusException ex,
             HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, @Nullable Object handler) throws Exception {
    
          int statusCode = ex.getStatus().value();
          String reason = ex.getReason();
          return applyStatusAndReason(statusCode, reason, response);
       }
    
       //将已解决的状态代码和原因应用于响应。
       //如果有原因,默认实现使用HttpServletResponse#sendError(int)或HttpServletResponse#sendError(int,String)发送响应错误,然后返回空的ModelAndView。
       protected ModelAndView applyStatusAndReason(int statusCode, @Nullable String reason, HttpServletResponse response)
             throws IOException {
          if (!StringUtils.hasLength(reason)) {
             response.sendError(statusCode);
          }
          else {
             String resolvedReason = (this.messageSource != null ?
                   this.messageSource.getMessage(reason, null, reason, LocaleContextHolder.getLocale()) :
                   reason);
             response.sendError(statusCode, resolvedReason);
          }
          return new ModelAndView();
       }
    }

5、DefaultHandlerExceptionResolver

HandlerExceptionResolver接口的默认实现,解析标准的Spring MVC异常并将它们转换为相应的HTTP状态代码。
默认情况下,在常见的Spring DispatcherServlet中启用此异常解析程序。

异常 HTTP状态码
异常 HTTP状态码
HttpRequestMethodNotSupportedException 405(SC_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED)
HttpMediaTypeNotSupportedException 415(SC_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE)
HttpMediaTypeNotAcceptableException 406(SC_NOT_ACCEPTABLE)
MissingPathVariableException 500(SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
MissingServletRequestParameterException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
ServletRequestBindingException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
ConversionNotSupportedException 500(SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
TypeMismatchException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
HttpMessageNotReadableException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
HttpMessageNotWritableException 500(SC_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR)
MethodArgumentNotValidException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
MissingServletRequestPartException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
BindException 400(SC_BAD_REQUEST)
NoHandlerFoundException 404(SC_NOT_FOUND)
AsyncRequestTimeoutException 503(SC_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE)
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